The Aims of the EUROTRAC-2 Subprojects
Coordinator: Harry ten Brink, ECN, the Netherlands
To investigate the formation of secondary aerosols and their contribution to the fine atmospheric aerosol (Dp < 2.5 mm).
Development and validation of novel instrumentation for the representative collection and analysis of aerosols.
Determination of the chemical mass balance of the fine aerosol at a limited number of sites.
Identification of the contribution of source categories to the major chemical components of the fine aerosol.
Design and performance of clear-air Lagrangian field experiments to study the changes in the chemical mass balance during transport, with focus on secondary aerosol formation.
Improvement of existing aerosol modules and development of new modules for implementation in the EURAD model (and other chemical transport models).
BIATEX-2 Biosphere/atmosphere exchange of pollutants
Coordinator: David Fowler, ITE, Edinburgh, UK
To provide estimates of biosphere/atmosphere exchange fluxes on different scales of time and space with the required accuracy to support future European environmental policy in the areas of eutrophication, acidification, oxidant formation and radiative properties of the atmosphere.
In order to attain this aim it will be necessary to provide mechanistic research into land/freshwater atmosphere exchange of the gases and aerosols necessary to develop and test deposition and emission models of key gases and aerosols.
CAPMAN Coastal air pollution meteorology and air-sea nutrient exchange
Coordinator: Gary Geernart, National Research Laboratory, Risø, Denmark
To improve our knowledge of physical and chemical processes which govern the atmospheric transport and transformation, and exchange of nutrients with the coastal sea.
To extend the understanding of atmospheric dynamics and chemical transformation in coastal circulations
To extend the understanding of aerosol mass closure and the role of organics
To extend the understanding of the physical and chemical processes governing the air-sea exchange of nutrients (and related parameters and compounds) over the coastal sea.
To extend our understanding of source-receptor relationships at various sites in coastal zones
CMD Chemical mechanism development
Coordinator: Ulrich Schurath, FZK, Karlsruhe, Germany
To develop a robust, application-oriented, scientifically sound kinetic scheme of atmospheric chemical transformations of pollutants over Europe, upon which cost-effective environmental control and abatement strategies of photo-oxidants and acidic substances can be based.
To develop detailed mechanisms for the tropospheric degradation of hitherto neglected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in particular aromatics and oxygenated compounds including alternative fuels and fuel additives, and certain biogenics.
To understand the role of free radicals and other reactive intermediates in the atmospheric aqueous phase, identify their sources and sinks, quantify pH and ionic strength effects, and develop a detailed mechanism of cloud, fog water and aerosol chemistry.
To measure transport and kinetic parameters controlling formation of new particulate matter and heterogeneous transformations on surfaces of condensed atmospheric matter (aerosol particles, cloud droplets, ice crystals), working out detailed process models.
To create a data base of evaluated mechanistic data on gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous reactions, including information on the relative importance of each reaction in the real atmosphere.
To simplify (reduce) the schemes of gas phase and aqueous phase reactions and of the heterogeneous processes by means of scenario-dependent modelling-based sensitivity analyses.
To develop application-oriented chemical codes which meet the criteria of cost-effectiveness and scientific correctness, to provide a basis for modelling-guided abatement strategies.
EXPORT-E2 European Export of Particulates and Ozone by Long- Range Transport: A Study in EUROTRAC-2
Coordinator: Stuart Penkett, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
To focus the efforts of European scientists in the experimental and theoretical study of the impact of emissions from the continents on the composition of the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere including the impact on air quality and on climate.
To systematically quantify the export of pollutants from Europe for comparison with emissions from North America and Asia and to study further chemical production of oxidants and aerosols from continental emissions throughout the free troposphere.
To plan future experiments by European scientists using European platforms designed to study ITCT, and to interact with other international scientists in Asia and North America in the wider aspects of this activity through the IGAC project (ITCT).
Coordinator: Rainer Friedrich, IER, Stuttgart, Germany
To support the generation of validated emission data, that can be used for the development of air pollution abatement strategies in Europe.
The improvement of methods, models and emission factors for the generation of emission data,
The assessment of the accuracy and the validation of emission data.
The development and improvement of tools, that generate emission data for atmospheric models.
GLOREAM Global and regional atmospheric modelling
Coordinator: Peter Builtjes, TNO, Delft, the Netherlands
To investigate by means of advanced and integrated modelling, the processes and phenomena which determine the chemical composition of the troposphere over Europe and on a global scale.
To develop and improve three-dimensional regional and global scale atmospheric transport-chemistry models
To apply complex and simplified models for specific environmental policy issues to assist other EUROTRAC-2 subprojects
LOOP Limitation of oxidant production
Coordinator: Albrecht Neftel, FAL, Berne, Switzerland
To investigate the photo-oxidant formation in heavily polluted areas of Europe, focusing on the question of VOC versus Nox sensitive ozone production.
To evaluate the temporal and spatial behaviour of photo-chemical regimes.
To provide improved tools for the assessment and development of efficient and cost-effective ozone management strategies.
To provide information on the Nox/VOC regime that can be compared to source estimates.
MEPOP Atmospheric cycling of mercury and persistent organic pollutants
Coordinator: John Munthe, IVL, Göteborg, Sweden
To quantify the regional and global cycling of semivolatile species such as mercury and POPs.
To identify and quantify processes that lead to the deposition of Hg and POPs from the atmosphere.
To quantify natural emissions of Hg and re-emissions of Hg and POPs in Europe and their influence on the regional cycling of these compounds.
To determine the temporal and spatial variations in atmospheric concentrations of Hg species and POPs in Europe.
To evaluate and assess current knowledge on anthropogenic emissions of Hg and POPs in the European region including time trends and how changing emissions are likely to affect the future atmospheric burden of these compounds.
To evaluate the coupling of global and regional cycling of Hg and POPs.
PROCLOUD Processing of trace constituents in clouds over Europe (refocussed)
Coordinator: Sandro Fuzzi, CNR, Bologna, Italy
To provide parametrisation of cloud processes at the individual cloud scale for application in mesoscale and global models.
To study the organic component of CCN. This issue addresses the scientific questions on how the organic component of atmospheric aerosol affects the ability of atmospheric particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN).
To study ice chemistry in clouds. This issue addresses chemical processes in super-cooled and iced clouds and the interaction of gases and particles with mixed and iced clouds.
To investigate the processing of aerosol particles by clouds. This issue addresses the physical and chemical changes occurring in an aerosol population when passing through a cloud.
To investigate the wet deposition processes. This issue addresses chemical deposition due to precipitation and/or cloud interception with the Earth's surface.
SATURN A study of atmospheric pollution in urban areas
Coordinator: Nicolas Moussiopoulos, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
To improve substantially the ability to establish source-receptor relationships at the urban scale.
To develop an appropriate model hierarchy, also covering the sub-urban (local) scales to the extent necessary to establish source-receptor relationships.
To evaluate individual models with suitable procedures.
To produce proper validation datasets from observations and experimental results originating from field campaigns and laboratory studies.
TOR-2 Tropospheric ozone research, phase 2
Coordinator: Anne Lindskog, IVL, Göteborg, Sweden
To quantify crucial processes in the atmosphere in order to improve the scientific background for the development of effect-based control strategies for photochemical oxidants over Europe.
To evaluate the long term trends in ozone, oxidants and precursors in relation to the changes in emissions over Europe occurring after 1980 for various parts of Europe.
To estimate the effect of ozone exchange between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere over Europe during various meteorological conditions.
To isolate and quantify the chemical and physical mechanisms of the spring ozone maximum in terms of the differing spatial and temporal scales in the troposphere.
To improve the understanding of ozone climatology in Eastern Europe.
TRAP45 Analysis of tropospheric air pollution problems and air pollution abatement in Europe since 1945
Coordinator: Peter Brimblecombe, UEA, United Kingdom
Scientific aim: to contribute to
a broader and more comprehensive and integrated view of the development of tropospheric and urban air pollution problems in Europe and its roots and causes;
a detailed assessment of the effectiveness of political and scientific responses to air pollution problems in the past;
a better understanding of shortcomings or neglect in atmospheric environmental sciences and environmental politics;
an integration of information and knowledge on air pollution problems from science and from other fields such as technology, history and political and administrative sciences;
an improved communication of EUROTRAC to policy-makers and the public to aid application of results to policy development.
TROPOSAT Use & usability of satellite data for tropospheric research
Coordinator: Ulrich Platt, Universität Heidelberg, Germany
to explore and encourage the use of satellite data to determine two- and three- dimensional distributions and time series of trace gases and other parameters in the troposphere and so facilitate future research and environmental monitoring on regional and global scales, in particular through:
the development of algorithms for the retrieval of tropospheric species and parameters;
the use of satellite data for understanding atmospheric processes;
the synergistic use of different instrumentation and platforms for tropospheric measurements;
the development of validation strategies for tropospheric satellite data products
In addition TROPOSAT will undertake other underpinning and derived activities such as the development of appropriate data assimilation techniques combining satellite measurements with modelling, and the specification of the requirements for future satellite instruments for tropospheric work.