Publications and patents



Bolduan, S., Koppensteiner, H., Businger, R., Rebensburg, S., Kunze, C., Brack‐Werner, R., Draenert, R., & Schindler, M. (2017). T cells with low CD2 levels express reduced restriction factors and are preferentially infected in therapy naïve chronic HIV‐1 patients. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 20(1).

Hofmann, S., Dehn, S., Businger, R., Bolduan, S., Schneider, M., Debyser, Z., Brack-Werner, R., & Schindler, M. (2017). Dual role of the chromatin-binding factor PHF13 in the pre-and post-integration phases of HIV-1 replication. Open Biology, 7(10), 170115.


Rebensburg, S., Helfer, M., Schneider, M., Koppensteiner, H., Eberle, J., Schindler, M., Gürtler, L., & Brack-Werner, R. (2016). Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins. Scientific reports, 6, 20394.

O’Rourke, A., Kremb, S., Bader, T. M., Helfer, M., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Gerwick, W. H., Brack-Werner, R., & Voolstra, C. R. (2016). Alkaloids from the sponge Stylissa carteri present prospective scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). Marine drugs, 14(2), 28

Zhernov, Y. V., Kremb, S., Helfer, M., Schindler, M., Harir, M., Mueller, C., Hertkorn, N., Avvakumova, N, Konstaninov, A., Brack-Werner, R. & Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Perminova, I.(2016). Supramolecular combinations of humic polyanions as potent microbicides with polymodal anti-HIV-activities. New Journal of Chemistry, 41(1), 212-224.


Schneider, M., Tigges, B., Meggendorfer, M., Helfer, M., Ziegenhain, C., & Brack-Werner, R. (2015). A new model for post-integration latency in macroglial cells to study HIV-1 reservoirs of the brain. AIDS, 29(10), 1147-1159.

M. Vincendeau, I. Göttesdorfer, J. M. H. Schreml, A. G. Ngounou Wetie, J. Mayer, A. D. Greenwood, M. Helfer, S. Kramer, W. Seifarth, K. Hadian, R. Brack-Werner and C. Leib-Mösch Modulation of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) transcription during persistent and de novo HIV-1 infection . Retrovirology 2015 12:27 DOI 10.1186/s12977-015-0156-6


Stephan Kremb, Markus Helfer, Birgit Kraus, Horst Wolff, Christian Wild, Martha Schneider, Christian R. Voolstra, Ruth Brack-Werner Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells Published: August 21, 2014 PloS one DOI: 10.1371

Nehls, J., Koppensteiner, H., Brack-Werner, R., Floss, T., & Schindler, M. (2014). HIV-1 Replication in Human Immune Cells Is Independent of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) Expression. PloS one, 9(8), e105478.

Markus Helfer, Herwig Koppensteiner, Martha Schneider, Stephanie Rebensburg, Sara Forcisi, Constanze Müller, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Michael Schindler, Ruth Brack-Werner
The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor. 2014 PloS one,9(1), e87487.


Vincendeau, M., Nagel, D., Brenke, J. K., Brack-Werner, R., & Hadian, K. (2013). Heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q increases protein expression from HIV-1 Rev-dependent transcripts. Virology journal, 10(1), 151.


Koppensteiner H, Brack-Werner R, Schindler M. Macrophages and their relevance in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I infection. Retrovirology. 2012 Oct 4;9:82

Demmer O, Frank AO, Hagn F, Schottelius M, Marinelli L, Cosconati S, Brack-Werner R, Kremb S, Wester HJ, Kessler H. A conformationally frozen peptoid boosts CXCR4 affinity and anti-HIV activity. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 Aug 6;51(32):8110-3

Nagel J, Gross B, Meggendorfer M, Preiss C, Grez M, Brack-Werner R, Dietzel S. Stably integrated and expressed retroviral sequences can influence nuclear location and chromatin condensation of the integration locus. Chromosoma. 2012 Aug;121(4):353-67


Kremb S, Helfer M, Heller W, Hoffmann D, Wolff H, Kleinschmidt A, Cepok S, Hemmer B, Durner J, Brack-Werner R. EASY-HIT: HIV full-replication technology for broad discovery of multiple classes of HIV inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2010, 54 (12):5275-5268.

Vincendeau M, Kramer S, Hadian K, Rothenaiger I, Bell J, Hauck SM, Bickel C, Nagel D, Kremmer E, Werner T, Leib-Mösch C, Brack-Werner R. Control of HIV replication by a family of highly conserved host proteins with a common Rev-interacting domain (Risp). AIDS 2010, 24 (16):2433-2442.

Meyer NH, Tripsianes K, Vincendeau M, Madl T, Kateb F, Brack-Werner R, Sattler M. Structural basis for homodimerization of the Src-associated during mitosis, 68 kDa protein (Sam68) Qua1 domain. J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(37):28893-901.

Meggendorfer M, Weierich C, Wolff H, Brack-Werner R, Cremer T. Functional nuclear topography of transcriptionally inducible extra-chromosomal transgene clusters.Chromosome Res. 2010 Jun;18(4):401-17.

Levin A, Hayouka Z, Helfer M, Brack-Werner R, Friedler A, Loyter A. Stimulation of the HIV-1 integrase enzymatic activity and cDNA integration by a peptide derived from the integrase protein. Biopolymers. 2010 Aug;93(8):740-51.

Levin A, Hayouka Z, Friedler A, Brack-Werner R, Volsky DJ, Loyter A. A novel role for the viral Rev protein in promoting resistance to superinfection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J.Gen Virol. 2010 Jun;91(Pt 6):1503-13.


Levin A, Hayouka Z, Brack-Werner R, Volsky DJ, Friedler A, Loyter A. Novel regulation of HIV-1 replication and pathogenicity: Rev inhibition of integration. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2009 Dec;22(12):753-63.

Hadian K, Vincendeau M, Mäusbacher N, Nagel D, Hauck SM, Ueffing M, Loyter A, Werner T, Wolff H, Brack-Werner R. Identification of a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-recognition region in the HIV Rev protein. J Biol Chem. 2009 Nov 27;284(48):33384-91.

Levin A, Hayouka Z, Helfer M, Brack-Werner R, Friedler A, Loyter A. Peptides derived from HIV-1 integrase that bind Rev stimulate viral genome integration. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(1):e4155.

Rothenaigner I, Kramer S, Meggendorfer M, Rethwilm A, Brack-Werner R. Transduction of human neural progenitor cells with foamy virus vectors for differentiation-dependent gene expression. Gene Ther. 2009, 16, 349-358..


Rothenaigner I, Kramer S, Ziegler M, Wolff H, Kleinschmidt A, Brack-Werner R Long-term HIV-1 infection of neural progenitor populations. AIDS. 2007 21:2271-81.


Wolff H, Hartl A, Eilken HM, Hadian K, Ziegler M, Brack-Werner R. A live-cell assay for simultaneous monitoring of expression and interaction of proteins. BioTechniques 2006 41: 688, 690, 692.

Wolff H, Hadian K, Ziegler M, Weierich C, Kramer-Hammerle S, Kleinschmidt A, Erfle V Brack-Werner R. Analysis of the influence of sub-cellular localization of the HIV-Rev protein on Rev-dependent gene expression by multi-fluorescence live-cell imaging. Exp. Cell Research> 312: 443-456.


Lux C, Albiez H, Chapman, RD, Heidinger M, Meininghaus M, Brack-Werner R, Lang A, Ziegler M, Cremer T, Eick D. Transition from inititation to promoter proximal pausing requires CTD of RNA polymerase II. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 33: 5139-5144.

Hariton-Gazal E, Rosenbluh J, Zakai N, Fridkin G, Brack-Werner R, Wolff H, Devaux C, Gilon C and Loyter A. Functional analysis of backbone cyclic peptides bearing the ARM domain of the HIV-1 Rev protein: Characterization of the karyophilic properties and inhibition of Rev-induced gene expression.>Biochemistry 2005 44:11555-11566.

Kramer-Hämmerle S, Hahn A, Brack-Werner R, Werner T. Elucidating effects of long-term expression of HIV1 Nef on astrocytes by microarray, promoter, and literature analyses. Gene. 2005 358, 31-38.

Kramer-Hammerle S, Rothenaigner I, Wolff H, Bell JE, Brack-Werner R. Cells of the central nervous system as targets and reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus. Virus Res. 2005 111:194-213.

Kramer-Hammerle S, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Bickel C, Wolff H, Vincendeau M, Werner T, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Identification of a novel Rev-interacting cellular protein. BMC Cell Biol 2005 6:20.

2004 and earlier

Rafalska I, Zhang Z, Benderska N, Wolff H, Hartmann AM, Brack-Werner R Stamm S. The intranuclear localization and function of YT521-B is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Hum Mol Genet 2004, 13, 1535-49.

Anderson CEA, Tomlinson GS, Pauly B, Brannan FW, Chiswick A, Brack-Werner R, Simmonds P and Bell JE. Astrocyte upregulation in HIV infected drug users is linked to productive infection in the CNS and not to drug use. Neuropath. Appl. Neuro. 2003, 29, 378-388.

Demart S, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Schlicht S, Walcher S, Wolff H, Neumann M, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Analysis of nuclear targeting activity of transport signals in the human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein. Exp Cell Res, 2003, 291/2, 484-501.

Wolff H, Brack-Werner R, Neumann M, Werner T, Schneider R. Integrated functional and bioinformatics approach for the identification and experimental verification of RNA signals: application to HIV-1 INS. Nucleic Acids Res 2003, 31, 2839-2851.

Hariton-Gazal E, Feder R, Mor A, Graessmann A, Brack-Werner R, Jans D, Gilon C, Loyter A. Targeting of nonkaryophilic cell-permeable peptides into the nuclei of intact cells by covalently attached nuclear localization signals. Biochemistry. 2002, 41:9208-14.

Neumann M, Afonina E, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Schlicht S, Erfle V, Pavlakis GN, Brack-Werner R. Nucleocytoplasmic transport in human astrocytes. Decreased nuclear uptake of the human immunodeficiency virus Rev shuttle protein. J. Cell Sci. 2001, 114, 1717-1729.

Cota M, Kleinschmidt A, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Aloisi F, Mengozzi M, Mantovani A, Brack-Werner R, Poli G. Upregulated expression of the interleukin-8, RANTES and chemokine receptors in human astrocytic cells infected with HIV-1. J. NeuroVirol. 2000, 6, 75-83.

Blusch J, Brack-Werner R, Werner T.A pseudoautosomal boundary-like element adjacent to the SSAV1 locus at 18q21. DNA Sequence 1999, 10, 115-119.
Brack-Werner R. Astrocytes: HIV cellular reservoirs and important participants in neuropathogenesis. Editorial Review, AIDS 1999, 13, 1-22.

Kohleisen B, Shumay E, Sutter G, Foerster R, Brack-Werner R, Nuesse M, Erfle V. Stable expression of HIV-1 Nef induces changes in growth properties and activation state of human astrocytes. AIDS 1999, 13, 2331-2341.

Ludwig E, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, van Empel J, Erfle V, Neumann M, Brack-Werner R. Diminished Rev-mediated stimulation of HIV-1 protein synthesis is a hallmark of human astrocytes. J. Virol.>73, 8279-8289.

Wachinger M, Kleinschmidt A, Winder D, v. Pechmann A, Ludvigsen A, Neumann M, Holle R, Salmons B, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Antimicrobial peptides melittin and cecropin inhibit replication of HIV-1 by suppressing viral gene expression.>J. Gen. Virol.>79: 731-740.>

Blusch JH, Haltmeier M, Frech K, Sander I, Leib-Mösch C, Brack-Werner R, Werner T. Identification of endogenous retroviral sequences based on modular organization: proviral structure at the SSAV1 locus. Genomics 1997, 43: 52-61.

Frech K, Brack-Werner R, Werner T. Common modular structure of Lentivirus LTRs. Virology 1996, 224, 256-267.

Fujimura RK, Bockstahler LE, Goodkin K, Werner T, Brack-Werner R, Shapshak P. Neuropathology and virology of HIV associated dementia. Reviews in Medical Virology 1996, 6, 141-150.

Gimbel W, Schmidt J, Strauss PG, Luz A, Brack-Werner R, Erfle V, Werner T. Molecular and pathogenic characterization of the RFB osteoma virus: lack of oncogene and induction of osteoma osteopetrosis and lymphoma. Virology 1996, 224, 533-538.

Ludvigsen A, Werner T, Gimbel W, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Down-modulation of HIV-1 LTR activity by an extra-LTR nef gene fragment. Virology 1996, 215, 245-251.

Bockstahler L, Werner T, Festl H, Weis S, Einhäupl KM, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Distribution of HIV-genomic DNA in brains of AIDS patients. Clinical and Diagnostic Virology 1995, 3:61-72.

Neumann, M, Kleinschmidt A, Felber BK, Froese B, Erfle V, Pavlakis GN, Brack-Werner R.>Restriction of HIV-1 production in a human astrocytoma cell line is associated with a cellular block in Rev function.>J. Virol. 1995, 69:2159-2167.

Kleinschmidt A, Neumann M, Möller C, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Restricted expression of HIV-1 in human astrocytes: Molecular basis for viral persistence in the CNS. Res. Virol. 1994, 145:147-153.

Leib-Mösch C, Haltmeier M, Werner T, Geigl EM, Brack-Werner R, Francke U, Erfle V, Hehlmann R Transcription of solitary HERV-K LTRs in human tissues. Genomics 1993, 18:261-269.

Von Dalnok GK, Kleinschmidt A, Neumann M, Leib-Mösch C, Erfle V, Brack-Werner R. Productive expression state confers resistance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2-infected lymphoma cells against superinfection by HIV-1. Arch. Virol. 1993, 131:419-429.

Brack-Werner R, Kleinschmidt A, Ludvigsen A, Mellert W, Neumann M, Herrmann R, Khim. MCL, Burny A, Müller-Lantzsch N, Stavrou D, Erfle V. Infection of human brain cells by HIV-1: restricted virus production in chronically infected human glial cell lines. AIDS 1992, 6:273-285.

Kohleisen B, Neumann M, Herrmann R, Brack-Werner R, Krohn KJE, Ovod V, Ranki A, Erfle V. Cellular localization of Nef expressed in persistently HIV-1 infected low-producer astrocytes. AIDS 1992, 6:1427-1436.

Erfle V, Stoeckbauer P, Kleinschmidt A, Kohleisen B, Mellert W, Stavrou D, Brack-Werner R. Target cells for HIV in the central nervous system: macrophages or glial cells? Res. Virol. 1991, 142:139-144.

Werner T, Ferroni S, Saermark T, Brack-Werner R, Banati R, Mager R, Steinaa L, Kreutzberg GW, Erfle V. HIV-1 Nef protein exhibits structural and functional similarity to scorpion peptides interacting with K+ channels. AIDS 1991, 5:1301-1308.


Brack-Werner, R., Helfer, M., Rösner, M., Schneider, M., Protzer, U., Hertweck, C., Werneburg, M. Pyrone Derivatives for use as antiviral agents. European Patent Application is pending, application number WO 2016/162405 A1

Rebensburg S., Helfer M., Brack-Werner R. Plant extract for the treatment of an HIV infection as well as products relating thereto. European Patent Application number EP 12005011.7;  US provisional Patent application is pending; Nummer USSN 61/642,715

Brack-Werner, R., Neumann, M., Erfle, V., Wolff, H. Reporter gene construct for the detection of HIV Rev and HIV Tat. German patent granted (101 30 155); Patent pending for the USA (10/176,010).